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Bridging Program Resource Guide: Writing & Citing

An information resources guide to support your online course work in the School of Pharmacy's Bridging Program

What do you need to do?

Writing and Communication Centre Appointments at the School of Pharmacy

You can book an appointment with a writing and communication instructor from the Writing and Communication Centre online, after registering for an account.

The Writing and Communication Centre can help with:

  • Tackling the writing process
  • Organizing your ideas
  • Managing evidence and research
  • Communicating with clarity
  • Learning how to revise and edit your work

There are also drop-in hours for writing assistance at the Porter and Davis Centre Libraries on main campus. 


Writing for Science

5 Goals of Citation

(Excerpt from Mack, C. 2018, p.35)

  • Provide sufficient context of the work to allow for critical analysis of the work by others and thus to enable the readers to gauge for themselves whether the author’s conclusions are justified;
  • Give the reader sources of background and related material so that the current work can be understood by the target audience (thus creating a web of science);
  • Establish credibility with the reader (e.g., the authors knows the field, have done their homework, etc.) and/or inform the reader that the paper belongs within a specific school of thought;
  • Provide examples of alternate ideas, data, or conclusions to compare and contrast with this work; and
  • Acknowledge and give credit to sources relied upon for this work (i.e., acknowledge the use of another’s ideas or data), thus upholding intellectual honesty. 

Tips to Improve Your Literature Search

(Excerpt from Mack, C. 2018, p.3)

  • Do the literature search before performing the research, and certainly before writing the paper.
  • The next most promising papers to read are often those referenced in the relevant papers you have already found.
  • Look in fields outside your discipline (this often means looking for different search keywords, which one recursively discovers when reading the literature outside of one’s discipline).
  • While your memory of which previous papers are worth citing is a good start, no one ever knows the full scope of the literature in even the smallest of niche fields. Do not rely on your memory alone.
  • When finishing up the manuscript, look for recent publications on the subject. Often, other researchers are working on similar topics and may have published papers that should be read to ensure that your manuscript captures the latest communal knowledge in the field.