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Peace and Conflict Studies: Citing & Writing

Why Cite?

It is extremely important to cite ALL references to uphold academic integrity and avoid plagiarism. The University of Waterloo has provided the following resources for your information: 

Organize your sources

Capture references, keep track of your research and format bibliographies by using reference management software. There are many such tools available. The University of Waterloo Library provides support to Refworks.

Writing an Annotated Bibliography

The library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill provides this quick guide to annotated bibilography writing on their website (link provided with permission of The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).

Writing Help

Research Guides by University of Waterloo Librarians

Evaluate information with RADAR

Keep these questions "on your radar". You may use this approach for evaluating any source of information.

R: Relevance

How is the information that you have found relevant to your assignment?

  • Does it relate to your topic or answer your research question?
  • Does it meet the requirements for the assignment?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is the one you will use?

A: Authority

Who is the author/creator of the work? It may be a person, publisher, or an educational or professional organization.

  • Is the author known as expert in the field? 
  • Does the author work for a reputable institution, e.g. a university, research center or government?
  • Does anyone cite this author/work? Does the author rely on other well-cited works? 
  • Is there contact information, e.g. a publisher or email address?

D: Date

When was the information created? Is the publication date important to you?

  • Has the information been revised or updated?
  • Does your topic require current information, or will older sources work as well?
  • If older, is this a seminal or landmark work?
  • Are the links functional?

A: Accuracy

What clues can you get about the accuracy of the source?

  • Was the work published by a peer-reviewed journal, academic press or other reliable publisher?
  • Was the information reviewed by an editor or a subject expert before it was published?
  • Do the references support the author's argument? Are the references properly cited?
  • Can you verify any of the information in another source?
  • Does the source look professional? Are there advertisements, typographical errors, or biased language?

R: Reason for writing

Why was this information created?

  • To produce a balanced, well-researched work that creates new knowledge?
  • Was it written as part of an ongoing debate, to counter an opposing claim?
  • Was it written in order to inform, sell, persuade, or entertain?

Adapted from:
Mandalios, J. (2013). RADAR: An approach for helping students evaluate Internet sources. Journal Of Information Science, 39, 470-478. doi:10.1177/0165551513478889

Chicago: The PACS Preferred Citation Style

The Peace and Conflict Studies department prefers, though does not require, the Chicago Style of citation. Confirm with your individual instructors which style they prefer.

Chicago Citation

Other Citation Styles

Other common citation styles:

Writing Guides Recommended by the Milton Good Library and PACS Faculty