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Optometry and Vision Science Research Guide: Validated ocular surveys and instruments

Research resources and information for vision science.



Pavani J, Alvares D, González JA, Rius R. Statistically Validating Patient Self-Reporting Questionnaires in Medicine. (González JA, Rius R, eds.). SAGE Publications Ltd; 2020.

Prior ME, Hamzah JC, Francis JJ, et al. Pre-validation methods for developing a patient reported outcome instrument. BMC medical research methodology. 2011;11(1):112-112. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-112. 

This paper presents a systematic and generalisable 5-step pre-validation PRO (patient reported outcomes) instrument methodology.

Validated tests and measures

Optometric, ophthalmic, and eye care

Tool Supporting validation study
CVIT 3-6 (The Children's Visual Impairment Test for 3- to 6-Year-Olds)

Vancleef K. Assessment tool for visual perception deficits in cerebral visual impairment: Development and normative data of typically developing children. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 2020;62(1):111-117. doi:10.1111/dmcn.14303

COMQoL (Comparison of ophthalmic medications for quality of life)

Utilized in: Laibovitz R, Boyle J, Snyder E, Strohmaier K, Adamsons I. Dorzolamide versus pilocarpine as adjunctive therapies to timolol: a comparison of patient preference and impact on daily life. Clinical therapeutics. 1996;18(5):821-832. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(96)80042-7

Cummins RA. The Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale (ComQol): Instrument development and psychometric evaluation on college staff and students. Educational and psychological measurement. 1994;54(2):372-382. doi:10.1177/0013164494054002011

ECES (eye care expectations survey

Dawn AG, McGwin G, Lee PP. Patient Expectations Regarding Eye Care: Development and Results of the Eye Care Expectations Survey (ECES). Archives of ophthalmology (1960). 2005;123(4):534-541. doi:10.1001/archopht.123.4.534

An instrument (the Eye Care Expectations Survey [ECES]) that can identify and quantify the expectations of patients visiting eye care providers.

EAPIQ (The Eye Allergy Patient Impact Questionnaire)

Alexander M, Berger W, Buchholz P, et al. The reliability, validity, and preliminary responsiveness of the Eye Allergy Patient Impact Questionnaire (EAPIQ). Health and quality of life outcomes. 2005;3(1):67-67. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-3-67

GQL-15 (The Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 Questionnaire) 

Nelson P. Quality of life in glaucoma and its relationship with visual function. Journal of glaucoma. 2003;12:139-150.

GSS 1998 (Glaucoma Symptom Scale)

Sencanic I. Glaucoma Symptom Scale: Psychometric properties of the Serbian version. PloS one. 2019;14(5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0216920

L-POST-R (The Leuven Perceptual Organization Screening Test--Revised 2021)

Vancleef K. Shortening the Leuven Perceptual Organization Screening Test with item response theory and confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological assessment /. 2021;33(12):1253-1260. doi:10.1037/pas0001045  

LVIM-R (The Low Vision Independence Measure--Revised)

Smith TM. Measurement Validity of the Low Vision Independence Measure (LVIM). The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association. 2019;73(3). doi:10.5014/ajot.2019.031070  

NEI VFQ-25, 2001 (National Eye Institute Function Questionnaire-25)

Mangione, C. M., Lee, P. P., Gutierrez, P. R., Spritzer, K., Berry, S., Hays, R. D., & National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire Field Test Investigators. (2001). Development of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function QuestionnaireArchives of Ophthalmology, 119, 1050–1058.

The Optometrist-Directed Smoking Cessation Measure 

Lorencatto F. Seeing new opportunities to help smokers quit: A UK national survey of optometrist-delivered smoking cessation behavioral support interventions. Nicotine & tobacco research. 2019;21(5):655-662. doi:10.1093/ntr/nty066

TSS-IOP (Treatment satisfaction survey for intraocular pressure)

Day DG, Sharpe ED, Atkinson MJ, Stewart JA, Stewart WC. The clinical validity of the treatment satisfaction survey for intraocular pressure in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients. Eye (London). 2006;20(5):583-590. doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6701932

SVC 2020 (Screening for visual complaints) Huizinga F, Heutink J, de Haan GA, van der Lijn I, van der Feen FE, et al. (2020) The development of the Screening of Visual Complaints questionnaire for patients with neurodegenerative disorders: Evaluation of psychometric features in a community sample. PLOS ONE 15(4): e0232232.


Tool Supporting validation study
MRI-AQ (Magnetic resonance imaging-anxiety questionnaire) Ahlander. Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging‐Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI‐AQ). Journal of advanced nursing. 2016;72(6).
STAI 2 (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory)

Utilized in: Chew SSL, Kerr NM, Wong ABC, Craig JP, Chou CY, Danesh-Meyer HV. Anxiety in visual field testing. British journal of ophthalmology. 2016;100(8):1128-1133.

Spielberger CD, Gonzalez-Reigosa F, Martinez-Urrutia A, Natalicio LF, Natalicio DS. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. RIP/IJP [Internet]. 2017 Jul. 17 [cited 2022 Aug. 24];5(3-4).